In my devotional it said that Moses "learned about the one true God from his parents." How could that be as Pharaoh’s daughter raised him? Plus, there is no mention of Moses' father other than in genealogy.
The biblical data on Moses’ parentage, especially his father, as you note, is sparse (Jochebed, wife of Amram and mother of Moses, Aaron, and Miriam, is mentioned by name only in Ex. 6:20 and Num. 26:59). We do know, however, that his mother was God’s instrument in preserving his life at a time of great threat to the emerging nation of Israel.
After Moses was rescued from the river, and because of Miriam’s timely suggestion, Pharaoh’s daughter sent for Moses’ mother Jochebed, and she returned to the palace to nurse Moses and even receive payment for his care (Ex. 2:1–8). This all happened, apparently, without Pharaoh’s daughter knowing who she was.
Some scholars say Jochebed cared for the boy till he was seven; others think he may have been approximately 10 to 12 years old before she went back home. That would have been plenty of time for Jochebed (and by extension Moses’ father) to shape his belief in God as the Creator of heaven, earth, man, and beast.
Those were formative years, and wonderfully, Jochebed did the right thing. Hebrews 11:23 notes that his parents “hid him for three months after he was born, because they saw he was no ordinary child, and they were not afraid of the king’s edict.” I believe that if these parents were unafraid of the king’s orders, they would have also been completely fearless in teaching him. Furthermore, he had contact later with his sister Miriam. She served, one writer puts it, “as the deliverer of the national deliverer.” Clearly, Moses never forgot his heritage.