What do Jewish people believe will happen when someone dies?
Jewish people (myself included) often joke that where there are two Jews, there are three opinions. Since there are many perspectives on this and other doctrinal beliefs, I will explain the traditional Jewish view, as found in ancient Rabbinic writings, like the Mishnah, Talmud, and Midrash.
Traditional Judaism teaches that all people, both Jew and Gentile, will stand before the Lord, who will judge them based on their adherence to the Torah, the Law of Moses. The righteous will be resurrected to Paradise while those who are totally wicked will be sent to Gehenna (or Hell) to suffer, after which they will be annihilated. The vast majority (who have done both good and evil) will go to Gehenna to atone for their sins and then be resurrected to life.
The apostle Paul had a radical departure from his training in Rabbinic Judaism. His declaration that we “are justified freely by his grace through the redemption that came by Christ Jesus” (Rom. 3:24) is the message we must present to both Jews and Gentiles, since “no one will be declared righteous in God’s sight by the works of the law” (Rom. 3:20).