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Christ the New Temple


For many Jews traveling long distances, the ability to purchase the required sacrificial animals in Jerusalem was a necessary convenience. Yet when Jesus entered the temple in today’s passage, He was clearly not happy with the marketplace scene. One reason is the specific location of the market stalls—they were in the “temple courts” (v. 14), that is, in the outer court of the Gentiles.

Gentiles were not allowed to proceed beyond this area of the temple, and their worship would have been disrupted by the chaos of haggling voices, bleating sheep, and lowing cattle. The merchants had indeed made “my Father’s house into a market!” (v. 16). In a parallel account, Jesus specifically identifies His concern for the Gentiles: “My house will be called a house of prayer for all nations” (Mark 11:17, citing Isa. 56:7). Jesus’ actions in the temple demonstrate a judgment promised earlier by God in Malachi. “The Lord you are seeking will come to his temple. . . . He will be like a refiner’s fire” (Mal. 3:1–2).

This is more than just God’s necessary cleansing of worship practices gone wrong. Jesus’ words and actions hint at the coming end of the animal sacrificial system. When the religious authorities demanded a sign from Jesus, He responded that He could restore a destroyed temple in three days (v. 19). His audience misunderstood His words to refer to the physical temple, not realizing that He was the full embodiment of the temple (v. 21). He was the presence of God in their midst. Only after the resurrection did the disciples understand.

John 2 is a continuation of the theme of John 1:14. With the coming of Jesus, God now tabernacles with humanity, and Jesus Himself is the new temple.

Apply the Word

In Jesus, worship of God is open to all. What friends, coworkers, neighbors, or family members need an invitation to come into relationship with the God who dwells with us? Pray for guidance from the Holy Spirit, then look for opportunities this Christmas to share the gospel. Pray that hearts would be open to receiving Christ.

BY Bryan Stewart

Bryan A. Stewart is associate professor of religion at McMurry University in Abilene, Texas. His particular interests are the history of Christian thought and the way that early Christians interpreted the biblical canon. He is the editor of a volume on the Gospel of John in The Church’s Bible series (Eerdmans), and he has done extensive research on the ways that the early Church preached on this Gospel. He is an ordained minister. 

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